"I hold that the perfection of form and beauty is contained in the sum of all men."


Dürer, Albrecht (1471-1528). German painter, printmaker, draughtsman and art theorist, generally regarded as the greatest German Renaissance artist. His vast body of work includes altarpieces and religious works, numerous portraits and self-portraits, and copper engravings. His woodcuts, such as the Apocalypse series (1498), retain a more Gothic flavour than the rest of his work.

  He was born in Nürnberg as the third son of the Hungarian goldsmith Albrecht Dürer. He began as an apprentice to his father in 1485, but his earliest known work, one of his many self portraits, was made in 1484. During 1513 and 1514 Dürer created the greatest of his copperplate engravings: the Knight, St. Jerome in His Study, and Melencolia. The extensive, complex, and often contradictory literature concerning these three engravings deals largely with their enigmatic, allusive, iconographic details. Although repeatedly contested, it probably must be accepted that the engravings were intended to be interpreted together. There is general agreement, however, that Dürer, in these three master engravings, wished to raise his artistic intensity to the highest level, which he succeeded in doing. Finished form and richness of conception and mood merge into a whole of classical perfection.

Dürer was so great an artist, so searching and all-encompassing a thinker, that he was almost a Renaissance in his own right - and his work was admired by contemporaries in the North and South alike. The 16th century saw the emergence of a new type of patron, not the grand aristocrat but the bourgeois, eager to purchase pictures in the newly developed medium of woodcut printing. The new century also brought an interest in Humanism and science, and a market for books, many of which were illustrated with woodcuts. The accuracy and inner perception of Dürer's art represent one aspect of German portraiture; another is seen in the work of that master of the court portrait, Holbein

The Italian influence on his art was of a particularly Venetian strain, through the great Bellini, who, by the time Dürer met him, was an old man. Dürer was exceptionally learned, and the only Northern artist who fully absorbed the sophisticated Italian dialogue between scientific theory and art, producing his own treatise on proportion in 1528.

Dürer seems to have united a large measure of self-esteem with a deep sense of human unfulfilment. There is an undercurrent of exigency in all he does, as if work was a surrogate for happiness. He had an arranged marriage, and friends considered his wife, Agnes, to be mean and bad-tempered, though what their real marital relations were, nobody can tell. For all his apparent openness, Dürer is a reserved man, and perhaps it is this rather sad reserve that makes his work so moving.

The Germans still tended to consider the artist as a craftsman, as had been the conventional view during the Middle Ages. This was bitterly unacceptable to Dürer, whose second Self-portrait (out of three) shows him as slender and aristocratic, a haughty and foppish youth, ringletted and impassive. His stylish and expensive costume indicates, like the dramatic mountain view through the window (implying wider horizons), that he considers himself no mere limited provincial. What Dürer insists on above all else is his dignity, and this was a quality that he allowed to others too.

Having rejected the Gothic art and philosophy of Germany's past, Dürer is the first great Protestant painter, calling Martin Luther "that Christian man who has helped me out of great anxieties''.


"Self-Portrait at 26" (1498) Oil on panel 52 x 41 cm, 20.5 x 16.1 in. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

"Christ Among the Doctors" (1506) Oil on panel 65 x 80 cm - 25.6 x 31.5 in. Colección Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain.

"Self Portrait" (1500) Oil on lime panel, 48.7 x 67.1 cm - 19.17 x 26.42 cm. Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany.

"Four Apostles" (1526) Oil on canvas. Private collection.

"Paumgartner Altar" (1503) Oil on lime panel, 126 x 155 cm - 49.6 x 61 in. Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany.

"The Knight, Death and The Devil" (1514) Copper Engraving.

Text source: 'Webmuseum' (

Related Artists:

Related Terms: Renaissance, Gothic, Engraving.


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