"I cannot live under pressures from patrons, let alone paint."


MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI SIMONI (b. March 6, 1475, Caprese, Republic of Florence, now Italy / d. Feb. 18, 1564, Rome). Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, and poet who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. He, too, was universally acknowledged as a supreme artist in his own lifetime.

Michelangelo resisted the paintbrush, vowing with his characteristic vehemence that his sole tool was the chisel. As a well-born Florentine, a member of the minor aristocracy, he was temperamentally resistant to coercion at any time. Only the power of the pope, tyrannical by position and by nature, forced him to the Sistine and the reluctant achievement of the world's greatest single fresco. His contemporaries spoke about his terribilitą, which means, of course, not so much being terrible as being awesome. There has never been a more literally awesome artist than Michelangelo: awesome in the scope of his imagination, awesome in his awareness of the significance of beauty. Beauty was to him divine, one of the ways God communicated Himself to humanity.

Like Leonardo, Michelangelo too had a good Florentine teacher, the delightful Domenico Ghirlandaio. Later, he was to claim that he never had a teacher, and figuratively, this is a meaningful enough statement. However, his handling of the claw chisel does reveal his debt to Ghirlandaio's early influence, and this is evident in the cross-hatching of Michelangelo's drawings, a technique he undoubtedly learned from his master.

In "The Pietą" (1499), Michelangelo approached a subject which until then had been given form mostly north of the Alps, where the portrayal of pain had always been connected with the idea of redemption. But now the twenty-three year-old artist presents us with an image of the Madonna with Christ's body never attempted before. Her face is youthful, yet beyond time; her head leans only slightly over the lifeless body of her son lying in her lap. "The body of the dead Christ exhibits the very perfection of research in every muscle, vein, and nerve. No corpse could more completely resemble the dead than does this. There is a most exquisite expression in the countenance. The veins and pulses, moreover, are indicated with so much exactitude, that one cannot but marvel how the hand of the artist should in a short time have produced such a divine work."

One must take these words about the "divine beauty" of the work in the most literal sense, in order to understand the meaning of this composition. Michelangelo convinces both himself and us of the divine quality and the significance of these figures by means of earthly beauty, perfect by human standards and therefore divine.

Michelangelo began work on the colossal figure of David in 1501, and by 1504 the sculpture was in place outside the Palazzo Vecchio. The choice of David was supposed to reflect the power and determination of Republican Florence and was under constant attack from supporters of the usurped Medicis. In the 19th century the statue was moved to the Accademia.

Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel from 1508 to 1512, commissioned by Pope Julius II. On becoming pope in 1503, Julius II reasserted papal authority over the Roman barons and successfully backed the restoration of the Medici in Florence. He was a liberal patron of the arts, commissioning Bramante to build St Peter's Church, Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel, and Raphael to decorate the Vatican apartments. It is the Sistine ceiling that displays Michelangelo at the full stretch of his majesty. Recent cleaning and restoration have exposed this astonishing work in the original vigor of its color. The sublime forms, surging with desperate energy, tremendous with vitality, have always been recognized as uniquely grand. Now these splendid shapes are seen to be intensely alive in their color.

Michelangelo was a heavyweight intellectual and poet, a profoundly educated man and a man of utmost faith; his vision of God was of a deity all "fire and ice'', terrible, august in His severe purity.


"The Creation of Man (fragment of the Sistine Chapel ceiling)" (1511-12) Fresco. Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican.




"The Creation of Man II (fragment of the Sistine Chapel ceiling)" (1511-12) Fresco. Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican.




"The Creation of Universe (fragment of the Sistine Chapel ceiling)" (1511-12) Fresco. Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican.




"Ignudi (fragment of the Sistine Chapel ceiling)" (1511-12) Fresco. Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican.




"Sybils: Erithraea (fragment of the Sistine Chapel ceiling)" (1511-12) Fresco. Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican.




"Sybille de Cummes (fragment of the Sistine Chapel ceiling)" (1511-12) Fresco. Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican.




"The Conversion of Saul (detail)" (1545Fresco. Cappella Paolina, Palazzi Pontifici, Vatican.




"The Holy Family with the Infant John the Baptist" (circa 1503) Tempera on panel. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy.


"The Pieta" (1499) Marble, height 174 cm, width at the base 195 cm. Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican.



"David" (1501-04) Marble 4.34m - 14 ft 3 in tall. Accademia, Florence, Italy.

Text source: various.

Related Artists:

Related Terms: Renaissance, Fresco.


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